SWF PREPRINT Transparency and Confidence Building Measures for Outer Space Activities


Dr. Peter Martinez

Posting date:

October 30, 2023




The document delves into Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBMs) in outer space activities. As space capabilities spread across countries, TCBMs play a pivotal role in reducing misunderstandings, fostering global stability, and supporting peaceful exploration of outer space. The text reviews past and current multilateral processes for space TCBMs, with historical context like the 1967 Outer Space Treaty and more recent UN space sustainability guidelines. As new commercial space activities emerge, potential future TCBMs are proposed, emphasizing commitments to legal frameworks, transparency in space intentions, and efforts to reduce orbital debris. Though these TCBMs are voluntary, their consistent adoption can shape them into emerging international norms, possibly paving the way for future binding treaties.


Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBMs), Outer space activities, International norms, Space treaties, Orbital debris, Space capabilities, Global stability, UN space sustainability guidelines, Commercial space activities, Legal frameworks


Peter Martinez, "Transparency and Confidence Building Measures for Outer Space Activities", SWF Preprint PP23/06, 2023.

Last updated on October 31, 2023